An eye is the most sensitive and precious organs of the human body and it deserve the best care than any organs in the body. Every individual needs the eyes to function as they should be, so that day to day activities can be performed without any disturbance or interruption and the beauty of the nature can best be experienced. Technically, a human eye visualizes various objects in multiple dimensions and transfers the details of the objects, such as the color, shape, distance and so on to the brain and stands as a significant medium between the human brain and external world. Eye does communicate with the brain by converting the light rays into signals and transmit to the brain. Then the brain decodes the received signals and translates back into visual images.
An eye having a diameter of one inch is well protected by a cavity of the skull, in the shape of cone. It consists of 5 internal organs and play vital role in the process visualizing the image in front of the eyes. The cavity is surrounded by soft tissues and fatty layers, and it allows flexible movement of the eye. Cavity is also termed and widely known as socket or orbit.
The basic eye anatomy includes the following.
Cornea acts as a window of the eye, by covering the eye’s anterior chamber. This transparent window enables the eye with the focusing power, after light enters the eye. Cornea is well supplied with oxygen and nutrients, through the fluid of tear. It is made up a tissue of five layers. Among these layers, the outer layer high regenerative cells made epithelium has got the ability to recover the eye even from superficial injuries, quickly. The two internal layers help the eye to maintain the optical clarity. The two other middle layers enhance the structural stability and strength. Usually, any of the refractive errors, like astigmatism, hyperopia, myopia are the results of abnormality found on the surface of the cornea. these refractive errors can be corrected by opting, Lasik laser eye surgery, one of the most advanced laser eye surgeries conducted , having highly trained Lasik surgeon, with the best lowest expense , in India. Hence, for astigmatism, long sightedness or near sightedness, simple surgical procedures can be chosen and correct the vision, through undergoing the most advanced Lasik laser eye surgery over the cornea of the eye.
Behind transparent cornea, the internal part is iris that represents the eye colour, which is varied with people, like blue, brown, black. The major iris function is to control the size of the pupil, which is located in its center, during the processes of expansion or contraction.
Lens is a transparent and clear structure and is placed behind the iris. The lens has its major role as focussing it for long vision and near vision, through changing the shape of it from thinner to thicker or vice versa. However, just close to and after age of 40, after setting in presbyopia, the lens become less flexible than needed. And while people reaching and crossing age of 60s, contraction of lens is taken place and the vision becomes cloudy, hindering the ability to have a clear vision.
Pupil has the ability to absorb the major light part and can control the light entering the eye. It is black in color and exists in the center part of the iris. After absorbing all the entering light, it changes its color to red, in the pictures, because of the reflection occurred from the retina. Pupil expands in dark for more light allowing to enter the eye and contracts in more brightness, allowing reduced light to enter the eye.
Retina is a tissue with light sensitivity and is placed at the back of the eye ball. It consists of a tissue of a fine nerve and inside the wall, two kinds of receptors of light, lining parallel to the wall. Retina has rods and is color sensitive. The rods act as film in camera, absorb white and black light and then transmit the image formed towards the brain.